Our Mission

IVI discovers, develops, and delivers safe, effective and affordable vaccines for global public health

Our Programs

IVI News and Announcements

- Findings of IVI-led study in 10 African countries published in The Lancet Global Health - High disease burden findings support the introduction of typhoid conjugate vaccines in high-incidence settings     February 27, 2017 - An IVI-led study found that typhoid fever and invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease are major causes of invasive bacterial febrile illness in some African countries, and they most commonly afflict children in low and high population density settings.   Large variations exist in the disease burden of Salmonella Typhi and non-typhoidal Salmonella in sub-Saharan Africa, with rates of disease reaching as high as 383 per 100,000 persons per years (PY) for S. Typhi and 237 per 100,000 PY for iNTS disease in Burkina Faso. A rate of more than 100 per 100,000 is considered “high” as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Typhoid was found in both infants and school-age children, with a higher incidence in children below 15 years old, according to the study recently published in The Lancet Global Health.   The varying incidence of disease-causing Salmonella suggests a complex epidemiology and a highly diverse disease distribution pattern in sub-Saharan Africa. Worryingly, significant levels of multidrug resistance were found in S. Typhi and iNTS strains in several settings. The findings support the rationale for the development and deployment of new vaccines against typhoid and iNTS disease.   “The development of iNTS vaccines and the introduction of S. Typhi conjugate vaccines currently under clinical development should be considered for high-incidence settings, such as those identified in this study,” said Dr. Florian Marks, IVI senior scientist and lead investigator of the study. Typhoid fever is a relatively common disease in many low- and middle-income countries where clean water and basic sanitation facilities are scarce. The disease is characterized by chronic fever that can lead to serious complications including intestinal perforation or neurological problems if untreated. It is estimated there are more than 20 million cases of invasive Salmonella infections globally, most of which are caused by S. Typhi, and 200,000 to 600,000 deaths per year.   While previous evidence suggested typhoid is a public health problem in Africa, there was limited scientific data to back up those claims. Consequently, IVI, with a network of partners, conducted the Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program (TSAP), the first multi-country population-based typhoid surveillance study in Africa. TSAP, which ran from 2011 to 2014, aimed to measure the incidence of typhoid fever and iNTS disease in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as the antimicrobial susceptibility of these causative agents. The program was funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.   IVI established a standardized surveillance network for invasive bacterial bloodstream infections consisting of 13 field sites in ten sub-Saharan African countries. Blood cultures were conducted on a total of 13,431 febrile patients. The study found the incidence rates of S. Typhi ranged from 0 per 100,000 person-years in Sudan to 383 per 100,000 PY in Burkina Faso; while the incidence of iNTS ranged from 0 in Sudan, Ethiopia, Madagascar, and South Africa to 237 per 100,000 in Burkina Faso. The Salmonella spp. strain accounted for 33% or more of all bacterial pathogens at nine sites.   Multidrug-resistant S. Typhi was isolated at sites in Ghana, Kenya, and Tanzania, and multidrug-resistant iNTS was isolated at sites in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, and Guinea-Bissau.   “A key challenge is to determine how useful an efficacious vaccine might be in low to middle-income countries, where the levels of disease vary so greatly between different regions. Such studies might be pivotal to facilitate the deployment of such vaccines,” Prof. Gordon Dougan of the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute said in his comment in The Lancet Global Health. “The changing epidemiological pattern, the emergence of a potentially more aggressive multidrug resistant strains, and the likelihood of increased antibiotic usage in communities affected by the disease are creating a sense of urgency (for the development and subsequent deployment of vaccines).”   Building upon these findings, IVI scientists are currently investigating severe typhoid cases in Africa by collecting additional information such as long-term manifestations of illness and socio-economic burden. This new program, Severe Typhoid in Africa (SETA), is also funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Such novel evidence will help strengthen the case for disease prevention and control measures, including the development and introduction of new vaccines.
Study finds a window of opportunity for CD8+ T cells to reduce overall number of HIV-infected cells   A new study has shown that potent HIV-specific CD8+ T cells that are able to kill HIV-producing cells and reduce the seeding of the HIV reservoir are only detected at peak viremia in acute HIV infection. Findings from the study, which was led by the U.S. Military HIV Research Program (MHRP) of the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, were recently published in Science Translational Medicine.   HIV-specific CD8+ T cells are white blood cells that kill cells infected with HIV.  CD8+ T cells play a critical role in controlling HIV viremia and could be important in reducing overall numbers of HIV-infected cells in approaches to eradicate HIV.   Researchers tracked immune response through three distinct acute HIV infection (AHI) stages. They found that the HIV-specific CD8+ T cells generated during AHI stage 1 and 2, prior to peak viremia, are delayed in expanding and acquiring effector functions, meaning they are less effective at controlling HIV replication. The viral reservoir poses a critical challenge in the quest to cure HIV infection since it contains cells in which the HIV virus can lie dormant for many years, thereby avoiding elimination by antiretroviral therapy   Prior to his tenure as IVI Director General, Dr. Jerome H. Kim was the Principal Deputy and Chief of the Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Pathogenesis at MHRP and Project Manager for the HIV Vaccines and Advanced Concepts Evaluation Project Management Offices, U.S. Army Medical Material Development Activity. From 2004 to 2009, he led the Army's Phase III HIV vaccine trial (RV144), the first demonstration that an HIV vaccine could protect against infection, as well as subsequent studies that identified laboratory correlates of protection and sequence changes in breakthrough HIV infections after vaccination.   For more information about the study, please visit:
S.-Japan Cooperative Medical Sciences Program’s (USJCMSP) 19th International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID) in the Pacific Rim runs from Feb. 7 to 10 First time conference held in South Korea; the International Vaccine Institute is the local host  February 7, 2017, Seoul, Korea – The “U.S.-Japan Cooperative Medical Sciences Program (USJCMSP) 19th International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID) in the Pacific Rim” kicked off its first day at the Novotel Ambassador Seoul Gangnam.  Held for the first time in South Korea, the International Vaccine Institute (IVI) is the local host of the four-day conference, which runs from February 7-10. Since 1996, the United States-Japan Cooperative Medical Sciences Program has been convening the EID conference annually in alternating countries. It serves as a venue for panel meetings and discussion of cross-cutting topics related to infectious disease research to promote international cooperation in research efforts in response to new, emerging infectious disease challenges of Asia and the greater Pacific region.   The conference draws researchers, government and public health officials, and representatives from academia and other public and private institutions from Pacific Rim countries such as South Korea and Japan, and the United States. More than 300 people from over 20 countries are participating this year, and speakers include researchers from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), USA; Yonsei University; National Cancer Center, Korea; Harvard University; Hokkaido University Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Japan; China Agricultural University; and National Institute of Infectious Diseases (NIID), Japan among many others.   This year’s conference focuses on antimicrobial resistance of bacterial and parasitic diseases of importance in the Asia-Pacific region. In addition, panels on Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI), Cancer, Cholera and Other Bacterial Enteric Infections, Mycobacteria, and Parasitic Diseases present the latest research in these disease areas. Oral and poster presentations will be given at the conference and disease panel workshops over the four days.   “As the local host and co-sponsor this year, we are very pleased to be a part of this major international scientific conference in the Asia-Pacific region,” said Jerome Kim, IVI Director General, “The program features discussions and presentations by scientific experts from around the world who will share latest research findings related to antimicrobial resistance, a timely and pressing topic in global health.” Among the speakers providing welcome remarks on the first day were Marc Knapper, Chargé d'Affaires, US Embassy in Seoul; Hideo Suzuki, Chargé d'Affaires ad interim, Embassy of Japan in Seoul; Jerome Kim, Director General of IVI; Aikichi Iwamoto, Science and Technology Advisor, Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED); and Patrick Brennan, University Distinguished Professor, Colorado State University   The conference was co-sponsored by the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Japanese Ministries of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW) and Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED), and IVI.  Support was also provided by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.         ###  About IVI The International Vaccine Institute (IVI) is the world’s only international organization devoted exclusively to developing and introducing new and improved vaccines to protect the world’s poorest people, especially children in developing countries. Established in 1997, IVI operates as an independent international organization under a treaty signed by 35 countries and the World Health Organization. The Institute conducts research in more than 20 countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America on vaccines against enteric and diarrheal infections, Japanese encephalitis, MERS-CoV, and dengue fever, and develops new and improved vaccines at its headquarters in Seoul, Republic of Korea. For more information, please visit  Media Contact:  IVI Tae Kyung Byun Phone: +82-2-872-2801 (Ext. 159) Mobile: +82-11-9773-6071 Email:

On the blog

An IVI Blog will be launched soon…

Our Donors

Stay Connected